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Cryptography: Importance of Encryption in Today’s Digital World

by | Feb 17, 2023 | Technology

Technology has made our life so much easier while also putting a target on our personal information. Computers by design do exactly what you told them to do but sometimes you don’t want them to do certain things like exposing private content.

Privacy is a topic that comes up quite often in our daily lives. Whether it’s the question of how much personal data is out there, or whether your digital footprint is being kept track of, the answer to this question doesn’t seem to come any clearer than it does right now.

With the rise of censorship, increased cyberattacks, and general fear over privacy loss, consumer security is at an all-time high risk. This is where cryptography comes in. It is the science of creating secrets.

It takes information and scrambles them making it impossible for a computer to understand without the proper credential. For instance, let’s say you have some secret information to send to someone on a different side of the world.

Since the receiver is on the other side of the world, you can’t just hand him the message, and since the message contains secret information you want to make sure no one can tamper with it.

Now while sending the message, there will be a lot of people between you and the receiver handling the posting. There’s a risk that the message can be intercepted or fall into the hand of the wrong person, who can access the confidential information.

If the person in the middle is a bad actor, he can keep the message for himself or take note of the information and let the message pass. So the best thing to do when transmitting confidential or personal information is to encrypt it.

You could use cryptography to encrypt the message and if somebody in the middle intercepts the information they wouldn’t be able to understand its contents. Now in today’s digital age where one-word messages can be sent to anybody around the world with a simple touch, encryption is extremely important.

With the age of digital encryption, we are entering an era where privacy as we know it, is changing for good, at least as far as digital communications are concerned. It enables you to encrypt your private communications with just a few taps from your smartphone.

In the digital age, cryptography is widely used for more than just encrypting sensitive data. It’s being used more and more by companies to secure their communication and protect their intellectual property. So what exactly is cryptography?

What is cryptography?

Cryptography is the science of securing communications and information. It is the practice of encrypting messages in such a way that only the intended receiver can decrypt them. In the digital world, it is used to secure personal information, and protect communication channels from eavesdropping and tampering.

Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. It is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from learning information about a conversation in a process called encryption.

Cryptographic encryption has been around for thousands of years. It is a very old practice that has been continuously refined over thousands of years. It’s only in recent years that it’s started to become sort of an everyday thing.

With the rise of technology and the increasing demand for security, every digital transaction is being encrypted. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering.

Modern cryptographic techniques are based on mathematical principles that make it difficult for an attacker to uncover the original message if they have the secret key that was used to encrypt the contents.

A cryptographic key is a secret code used to protect data in a computer system or to encrypt information for storage or transmission. It is a series of characters used within an encryption algorithm for altering information so that it appears random. 

Types of cryptography

Cryptography is a field of mathematics and computer science concerned with the security of communication of information. In a narrow sense, it is the practice of transforming readable data into an unreadable format.

In a broader sense, it is the study of algorithms and protocols that secure data transmissions. More generally, it is about constructing and analyzing protocols that let people (or computers) communicate securely. And this is achieved by using different types of encryption techniques such as:

Secret key cryptography (symmetric encryption)

Symmetric encryption is a type of encryption that uses a single key to both encrypt and decrypt data. This means that the same key used to encrypt data is utilized to decrypt it. It is one of the most secure forms of codification and is widely used in many different applications.

Symmetric encryption is also known as secret-key cryptography since the same key must be shared between the sender and recipient for successful decryption. This makes it very secure because it is difficult for anyone to decrypt the data if they do not have the correct key.

Public key cryptography (asymmetric encryption)

Asymmetric encryption is a type of cryptography technique that uses two different keys, a public key, and a private key. The public key is used to encrypt the data, while the private key (only known to the recipient) is used to decrypt it.

Asymmetric encryption provides an extra layer of security and makes sure that only authorized users can access the encrypted data. Without the private key, the information can’t be decrypted. It secures contents by ensuring that only the intended recipient can access them.

One of the benefits of the asymmetric approach is that it is more secure than the symmetric approach because it requires two different keys. If one key is compromised, the information cannot be decrypted using the other key.

Another benefit of asymmetric encryption is that it is faster than symmetric. Because the private key is only used for encryption, there is less overhead required to encrypt data.

Hash Functions

A cryptographic hash function is an important tool for providing security in the digital world. It is used to convert data of any length into a fixed-length output known as a hash. The output of a hash function is unique and can be used to identify a specific piece of data.

The purpose of a cryptographic hash function is to create a unique output for a given input. This output is used to verify the integrity of the information, as any changes to the input will result in a different output.

It also provides an additional layer of security by making it difficult for attackers to reverse engineer the original data from the hash. Cryptographic hash functions are used widely in areas such as digital signatures, password storage, and blockchain technology.

Principles of cryptography

Cryptography is essential to the internet as we know it today. Without it, you wouldn’t be able to send an e-mail or browse websites without worrying about someone snooping on what you are doing.

It is based on certain principles that ensure no one can eavesdrop on your communications, tamper with your information or impersonate a website. The principle of cryptography are:

Encryption is a process of transforming readable data into an unreadable format. This is done to protect the information from unauthorized access.

Decryption is the process of turning encrypted text back into plaintext. The encryption process transforms the plaintext message into a series of code blocks or ciphertext. The decryption process reverses the encryption process, breaking the code blocks down into their original plaintext form.

Confidentiality is a key component of cryptography and ensures that the data is not intercepted or compromised. It is about ensuring that only the intended recipient can access and decrypt the information.

Non-repudiation is the ability of a party to prove to another party that a previous communication or action occurred. It is essential for secure communication as it allows a party to prove to another party that they are who they say they are and that the information communicated is true. This ensures that the sender of a message cannot backtrack in the future and deny the sending of a message.

Data Integrity is the property of information to remain consistent and unchanged over time. It is one of the fundamental principles of cryptography as it ensures that information within a message cannot be modified during transmission or storage.

Authenticity is the ability to ensure the correspondence between a message and its purported sender. It ensures that both the sender and recipient can verify each other identity.

How does cryptography work?

Cryptography is a powerful tool used to protect data from unauthorized access as well as a practice of secure communication in the presence of third parties. It works by transforming readable information into an unreadable format in a process called encryption.

Encryption techniques are derived from mathematical concepts. It uses algorithms and rule-based calculations to send messages in ways that are hard to read. The algorithms create a cryptographic key to control digital signing, protect privacy, and maintain confidentiality.

Modern cryptography is most often associated with translating ordinary readable text called plaintext into an encrypted unreadable text called ciphertext, and then back again to decipher it into plaintext. 

To encrypt a message, you need two things, the cipher, and the key. The cipher is the set of rules that encode the information. It is a type of encryption that converts readable text into an unreadable format. The original text can only be recovered if the encryption key is known.

First, the information is converted into an unreadable form. Then this unreadable content is applied with a key using an encryption algorithm. Once the algorithms have processed the information and the encryption key has been applied, we get the ciphertext.

The ciphertext is sent over the network to the recipient where the intended receiver will use a decryption key to decipher the text. The receiver needs the right key to decrypt the message. The ciphertext uses the parameters of the key to reconstruct the information into its original form.

In short cryptographic algorithms convert plaintext into ciphertext, which can then only be decrypted by someone with the right key. This is how it protects information from unauthorized access, and ensures the privacy of communications.

Why do we need cryptography?

We live in an era where everything we do online is tracked and recorded by multiple companies, from Facebook and Google to banks and credit card companies. Most people don’t realize how much information is circulating over the internet.

The amount of data being collected, processed, and stored is growing beyond anything we’ve ever seen. This has also produced a parallel increase in computing power and processing capability, which has enabled businesses to collect, analyze and store even more information.

What many people don’t realize, is that all this additional information brings with it a host of new security risks. This is especially troublesome when it comes to big data. The importance of big data cannot be overstated but it also brings risks.

It is well known that hackers are an increasing threat to businesses and individuals. They are constantly trying to find new ways to attack their targets. This has led to the rise of cyberattacks, where hackers try to take control of networks or steal data.

The growing sophistication of technology has given hackers more sophisticated tools with which they can carry out attacks. Moreover, the internet has become increasingly central to people’s lives, and they are using it to access services, conduct transactions,  or obtain information.

This has led to an increase in cyberattacks that have seen data breaches, stolen user credentials, and even ransomware attacks. As technology becomes more advanced, the number of cybercrimes has increased because they’re becoming less expensive to conduct.

This means that more motivated people and organizations can launch attacks. In 2022, the average cost of data breaches reach USD 4.35 million. It is estimated that 71% of breaches are financially motivated and cybercrime will cost the world USD 10.5 trillion annually by 2025.

With the increasing prevalence of cyberattacks, cryptography is becoming more important than ever for businesses and individuals to protect their data and communications from unauthorized access.

Importance of cryptography

Encryption is the art of encoding information in such a way that only those for whom it is intended can read it. Without cryptography, there would be no secrecy or privacy in the digital world. Everything would be easily hackable.

The importance of cryptography has been increasing over the years, especially due to the rise in cyberattacks. It is vital for online security as it helps protect data from unauthorized access, theft, and destruction. It also helps protect the privacy of online users.

By encrypting information, organizations, and individuals can ensure that their sensitive content remains secure and confidential. It also provides authentication, which allows users to verify that the message they are sending or receiving is coming from the intended source.

Authentication is an essential part of cryptography, and without it, many sensitive pieces of information would not be secure. It ensures the integrity of both the sender and the receiver. In addition, it can also be used to ensure that the content is not tampered with in transit.

With its ability to protect data and provide authentication, encryption has become an essential part of modern digital security. It ensures that only authorized users can access sensitive content and that any information sent is secure from malicious actors.

The importance of cryptography is becoming increasingly prevalent in the age of big data. With the ever-increasing amount of information being generated and stored, it is essential to ensure that our infrastructure remains secure and private.

Cryptographic codification protect information from unauthorized access or manipulation. It encrypts data, authenticates users, and provides digital signatures for documents. By codifying information, organizations can protect their sensitive content from cybercriminals and other malicious actors.

As such, it is playing an essential role in ensuring the safety of our digital world. It is used in a variety of applications, from online banking, and shopping to protecting government and military secrets. It helps businesses maintain their competitive edge by keeping their confidential information safe from competitors.

Encryption also ensures that communications are confidential and that they are not tampered with. It uses mathematical algorithms to codify and secure communication between two entities, especially computers and the internet.

This makes it an important part of the internet as it protects the transmission of data between sites. And at the same time, it ensures accountability during transmission. The security of data transmission relies on the secrecy of the encryption key and secure communications protocol.

Cryptography secures transmission by encrypting the information and then transmitting it using a secure communications protocol. The secrecy of the cryptographic keys is essential to the security of data transmission.

Moreover, it is a powerful tool that ensures accountability between two parties. It allows for the secure exchange of sensitive information, while also providing a way to verify that both parties are held accountable for their actions.

Encryption protects data from being accessed by unauthorized individuals and ensures that both parties are held responsible for any changes or modifications made. By implementing cryptography, both parties can be sure that their interactions will remain secure and confidential.

Cryptographic codes are used to protect corporate secrets and secure classified information. It ensures that only the intended receivers or authorized persons can read or access confidential content.

“Crypt” means hidden, and “graphy” means writing. Cryptography algorithms transform data (writing) into a hidden form that is unreadable to everyone except those with the correct key. The encrypted information is then stored in a secure location, such as a protected database.

The algorithm can also protect the privacy of communications. When a user encrypts a message, the information is hidden from anyone who doesn’t have the correct decryption key. This protects the privacy of the sender and the recipient of a message.

It is also a way to protect the integrity of information and prove that it is reliable. And since we are living in the digital age, all the above mention make cryptography a powerful tool for improving digital trust.

Encryption is used to protect information, secure communication, and ensure the authenticity of digital transactions. An encrypted database ensures that only authorized users can access it. It also helps verify the identity of users by providing them with a digital signature.

Furthermore, it is the foundation of digital signatures, which are used to authenticate a digital message as coming from a specific source. Digital signatures are used to verify the identity of a sender and ensure that a message has not been altered in transit.

These features of cryptography are essential for maintaining trust in the digital world and protecting confidential information from malicious actors. In fact, digital trust is what makes every interaction over the internet possible and most people use encryption every day without even realizing it.

Goals of cryptography

Cryptography focuses on the secure transmission of data. It has become an essential part of modern communication, as it allows us to keep our digital exchanges safe from prying eyes. It involves the use of algorithms and mathematical principles to encrypt and decrypt information to ensure that only authorized users can access it.

The goals of cryptography are to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data, as well as providing authentication for users. Cryptographic techniques also provide digital signatures, which allow users to prove their identity and verify the origin or authenticity of documents. It has become an essential part of secure communications and is used in a variety of applications.

Uses of cryptography

Encryption is the science of hiding and protecting sensitive information. It is a fundamental part of secure communications and is used in a variety of settings. The uses of cryptography are:

Financial transaction

Cryptography is used in financial transactions to protect the identities of the participants and to ensure the integrity of the data. It also protects the privacy of the sender and the receiver of the money.

Virtual private networks (VPNs)

Cryptography is used in Virtual private networks to protect the data and communications of users. It is used in VPN to encrypt data with a key. The key is kept secret by the VPN provider. The encrypted content is then sent to the VPN server. The VPN server then decrypts the content using the key. The decrypted data is then sent to the user.

Secure network (SSL/TLS encryption)

Cryptographic algorithms are used to secure network communications. It is used for a variety of purposes, including protecting the privacy of communications, ensuring the integrity of messages, and preventing unauthorized access to data.

The algorithm encrypts the information being sent over a network to protect it from unauthorized access. Encryption ensures that the data is protected from anyone who might be able to intercept it, including people who are eavesdropping on the network traffic.

Encryption also ensures the integrity of messages and creates a digital signature. SSL is a cryptographic protocol that provides security for communications between two parties. It protects the transmission of data between a web server and the browser of a client.

Computer passwords

Encryption is used in computer passwords because it is a secure way to store information. It uses mathematical formulas to create a secure password. These formulas are difficult to crack, which makes your password secure.

Data transmission

Another use of cryptography is to protect datasets from unauthorized access during transmission. It protects information in transit by ensuring that it is encrypted before it is transmitted.

The content being transmitted is encrypted using a key that only the sender and the receiver know. The encryption ensures that the content is protected from unauthorized access. It can also authenticate the source of information and ensure its privacy.

Data storage

Encryption protects data while it is in transit, at rest, or in storage. It protects database against unauthorized access during storage. Information is encrypted using a key that is stored on the storage device. Encryption ensures that the stored content is secure.

Cryptography is also used for authentication and integrity checks. It encodes data so that only authorized users can access it. It also secures the codified content so that it is not susceptible to tampering during storage and keeps track of its integrity.


One of the most common uses of cryptography is time stamping. Time stamping is a process of assigning a unique time to a document or data. This time sometimes close to an accurate fraction of seconds is used to prove that the document was created at a specific time and not altered after that time. It is often used to prevent tampering.

Secure chatting service

In chat services, encryption protects the conversation between two users. Without encryption, the conversation could be easily intercepted and read by third parties.

Secure web browsing

Cryptographic algorithms are used to protect web browsing data from being accessed by unauthorized individuals. It encrypts information before it is sent over the internet. The encrypted content is then decrypted by the recipient.

Electronic/Digital Signatures

Another use of cryptography is in digital signatures. A digital signature is a mathematical algorithm that allows a party to prove that they are the legitimate owner of a digital entity.

It is a digital security method used to verify the identity of a sender and to ensure that a message has not been modified in transit. A digital signature is a mathematical indicator of the identity of the signer, created using a private key and a public key.

The sender encrypts the message using the private key and sends the encrypted message to the recipient. The encrypted message is then signed using the public key.

The recipient decrypts the message using the recipient’s public key and compares the decrypted message with the original. If the two messages match, the recipient can be sure that it has not been modified in transit.


Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of someone. Cryptography is used to secure authentication data. Information that is used for authentication is often sensitive, such as passwords. This is why it needs to be encrypted.

End-to-end encryption

Cryptography is a method of end-to-end encryption. It uses mathematical algorithms to create an unbreakable code that can only be read by the intended recipient. This code creates a secret message that can only be understood by the sender and the recipient.

It is used in conjunction with a secure communications protocol to protect the information from being intercepted. It protects the data from being tampered with, creates a secure communication channel, and authenticates the sender and the receiver of the data.

Encrypt email

When sending an email, the sender and recipient both need to use encryption to protect the messages. Email providers use different methods to protect messages. When a user sends an email, the message is encrypted using a secure algorithm. The email provider then uses their own security measures to protect the email message from being accessed by unauthorized users.

Applications of cryptography

Cryptography is used in a variety of settings, such as secure communications and transmission, data integrity and authentication, and secure storage. It protects against cyberattacks, data theft, and the privacy of personal information.

It has become an essential tool for protecting sensitive information in today’s digital world and it is applied in many different entities. The application of cryptography are:

Digital currency

It is used to protect online transactions. In digital currency, cryptography protects the integrity of transactions and controls the creation of new units. It also authorizes and authenticates the transfer of assets.

Encryption is used to protect digital currencies from being stolen or tampered with. It ensures that a user’s digital currency is only used by the person who is authorized to use it. And it protects against fraud when a user is trying to purchase something online.

Cryptography also protects the identities of users and the security of their transactions. And ensure that new units are created at a consistent rate and that transactions are valid and secure.  It creates unique identifiers for units of currency. These identifiers are used to identify transactions and to control the creation of new units of currency.


Cryptography is used in e-commerce to protect the confidentiality of data and transactions. It also protects the integrity of information while it is being transmitted over the internet and while it is being used in an e-commerce transaction.

Military operation

Encryption is used in military operations for a variety of reasons. For example, it can protect communications between commanders and troops to ensure that data is not tampered with or intercepted, and to protect the identities of officers and soldiers.

Additionally, it protects the security of databases stored on military computers, protects the identities of sources, and prevents unauthorized access.


Cryptography protects data, verifies the integrity of transactions, and prevents fraud in the financial sector. It is used in a variety of financial technologies (fintech), including point-of-sale (POS) systems, and mobile banking.

It also protects the database of financial institutions and individual customers from unauthorized access, theft, and alteration. In the event of a breach, cryptographic tools can help protect the data of financial institutions and individual customers. It also ensures the confidentiality of transactions and the integrity of data.

Medical record

Another application of cryptography is medical recordkeeping. Medical records contain a lot of sensitive information hence protecting the privacy of patients is primordial. Encryption helps protect the privacy of medical information by preventing unauthorized access, use, or disclosure.


Cryptography is an essential part of cybersecurity. It protects database from unauthorized access and destruction, and it enables secure communications. It also protects content stored on a computer or in a cloud storage system, protects data in transit, such as when it is being sent over the Internet, and protects the privacy and integrity of communications.


Encryption is an important part of government operations, both to protect the privacy of citizens and government information. It protects the identities of government officials and the information they are working with and ensures the confidentiality of classified documents.


In the context of communication companies, cryptography is used to protect the privacy of customers and employees. It provides security for the data that is being exchanged during communication between two parties.

Corporate use

Codification is an essential part of any cooperation. It secures communications between participants in a project. This is especially important when the project involves sensitive content, such as financial information.

Without encryption, cooperate projects could easily fall victim to cyberattacks. These attacks could sabotage the project or steal sensitive information. Hence, it helps protect data from unauthorized access and ensures that messages are not tampered with along the way.


Cryptography is used to protect the exchange of money, goods, and information. It is a critical part of global trade. It helps protect the confidentiality of information, ensures that data is not tampered with in transit, and can enable two parties to communicate securely without the need for a third party.

Future of cryptography

Cryptography has been around for centuries to protect information from unauthorized access. And now modern encryption is being used for a lot more than preventing unauthorized access.

As technology continues to advance, so will the applications of cryptography in areas such as data storage, communication, authentication, and authorization. It is an essential part of our digital lives, and its future looks brighter than ever.

With the rise of blockchain technology, it is set to become even more important as it provides the security needed to protect data and transactions. Cryptographic encryption is used in blockchain to create a secure network and transaction ledger.

Encryption is a fundamental component of blockchain and smart contracts, providing the security and trust needed for these technologies to function. As they become more widely adopted, cryptography will ensure the protection of data, verify transactions, and ensure the integrity of digital assets.

In the future, cryptographic techniques will be applied in a variety of ways to ensure that data is safe from malicious actors while still allowing legitimate users to access it when they need. It will also be used in smart contracts to ensure that all parties involved are held accountable for their actions.

With its increasing use in these technologies, cryptography will become an essential part of our digital lives. It is a powerful tool that can help create a more secure and decentralized future. And allow people to securely send and receive data without relying on third-party services or organizations.

Cryptography also allows for the creation of decentralized networks that are not controlled by any single entity. This could lead to greater privacy, security, and freedom of information in the digital world.

Moreover, users can have more control over their data and be sure that it won’t be accessed or manipulated by any malicious actors. It could also help create new types of currencies that are not dependent on governments or banks, allowing users to transact with each other directly and securely.

And as we move forward, cryptography will also play an important role in the development of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). As AI and ML become more widespread, encryption will be used to ensure data privacy and security while allowing for secure access to valuable resources.

It provides the security and privacy needed to ensure that data remains confidential, secure, and protected from malicious actors. In addition, it is used to protect AI algorithms from being reverse-engineered or manipulated by adversaries.

Cryptography also helps to verify the integrity of data and ensure that it is not tampered with or corrupted while in transit. By using the technology, AI and ML systems can be made more reliable, secure, and trustworthy.

The future of cryptography looks bright as it continues to evolve with advances in technology. However, even if it is a powerful tool for protecting sensitive data, it can be vulnerable to brute-force decoding.

Brute force attacks are attacks in which a hacker attempts to guess a password or PIN by trying every possible combination. Today, brute force attacks are often used to steal passwords or PINs from online accounts.

Hence, the future of cryptography is set to feature greater key size as an effective way of preventing brute-force decoding and ensuring that data remains secure. By increasing the key size, it becomes much more difficult for attackers to decode encrypted databases as they would need to try many different combinations of characters to find the correct one.

The use of larger keys also helps reduce the time needed for encryption and decryption operations, making them faster and more efficient. This makes the technology even more useful in applications where speed and security are both important considerations.

Furthermore, quantum computing is a rapidly evolving field that has the potential to revolutionize the world of technology. It is a technology that can break encryption schemes. Many modern applications, including online banking, rely on encryption to protect user data.

As such, it is important to ensure that our database is secure from quantum computing attacks. One way to do this is through the use of quantum-safe cryptography which is a next-generation public key algorithm that is being tested by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

This quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithm provides an enhanced level of security by using complex mathematical operations and encryption techniques to protect data from quantum computing attacks. They are also designed to be able to withstand future advances in quantum computing technology, ensuring that data remains secure for years to come.

However, all these are still at an early stage. And as technology is becoming an integral part of our daily lives, and with our willingness to share personal information over the internet, cryptography will continue to grow. The global encryption software market is set to reach USD 22.1 billion by 2026.

The future of cryptography is mostly about making encryption stronger and more widely accessible through peer-to-peer applications. As hackers get more sophisticated, it becomes necessary to use stronger forms of encryption to keep our data safe from them.

Final words

Our modern world relies more on the integrity of information than ever before. It’s no surprise that encryption has become an important feature in the digital world we live in. As technology continues to improve, so will the security measures surrounding our digital data.

Cryptography is the method by which we assure this integrity and is ingrained in everything that we do today, whether we’re aware of it or not. It provides a way to pursue freedom and privacy, communicate privately and share information with impunity, and create virtual identities that are hard to trace.

Cryptography is essential to ensure that any company that uses a computer network can securely transport information from one end of the computer network to another. It has been woven into our society’s fabric so thoroughly that we do not even bat an eye at its presence.